Research and White Papers

Mesenchymal stem cells for cartilage regeneration in osteoarthritis

In summary, these studies show that MSCs can be employed successfully to treat mild to moderate OA through various ways. They provide alternative treatment options and treatment can start early during progression of OA. The traditional major surgeries used to treat late stages are expensive and come with risks. The less invasive techniques outlined in this minireview have revealed good outcomes, but the field merits further investigation. Superior outcome was evident with greater quantity of MSCs injected. Most of the emphasis on minimally invasive therapeutic alternatives including intraarticular injections of MSCs, aim to cut out cost and risks of major surgeries.

 

Role of mesenchymal stem cells in osteoarthritis treatment

Without an effective cure, OA remains a significant clinical burden on our elderly population. The advancement of regenerative medicine and innovative stem cell technology offers a unique opportunity to treat this disease. Although the application of MSCs in joint repair is well established, it is particularly exciting about MSCs being used for OA treatment. In this study, researchers examine OA and the likely resolution with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs have been one of the highlights in stem cell research in recent years

 

Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce monosodium iodoacetate-induced apoptosis in cartilage

 This study concludes that human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs) can fulfill mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics with mesoderm differentiation capability. HUCMSCs can assist in repair of cartilage damage and in ameliorating cartilage apoptosis. These results can be associated with motor behavioral improvement. Therefore, HUCMSCs may be a viable source for stem cell treatment for Osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage repair.

 

Effects of insulin-like growth factor-induced Wharton jelly mesenchymal stem cells toward chondrogenesis in an osteoarthritis model

The study concluded that the IGF1-induced WJMSCs were capable to enhance chondrogenesis, indicated by increased expression of SOX9 and COL2 and decreased expression of ADAMTS1, ADAMTS5, MMP3, MMP1, and RANKL. These findings can be further used in the osteoarthritis treatment.

 

Wharton’s Jelly-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Osteoarthritis

This phase I/II study will enroll 100 subjects with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the hip/knee/ glenohumeral joint will be enrolled according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Subjects will receive a single dose of at least 10 million of Wharton Jelly derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (WJMSC) prepared by the Polish Stem Cell Bank every three months for 12 months (maximum four doses in total and at least 40 million of WJMSC in total) via ultrasound guided intra-articular injection.  During the study period and 24 months after last injection they will be followed by clinical assessment, laboratory investigations including inflammatory markers and microRNA, as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the injected joint. The investigators will also determine the local and systemic safety of the procedure and therapy with WJMSC.

 

Efficacy of Intra-articular Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review

The study found that in patients with symptomatic knee OA, PRP injection results in significant clinical improvements up to 12 months postinjection. Clinical outcomes and WOMAC scores are significantly better after PRP versus HA at 3 to 12 months postinjection.

 

Enhancing Nervous System Recovery through Neurobiologics, Neural Interface Training, and Neurorehabilitation

Researchers have long been developing ways to improve the quality of life for patients who suffer from SCI, stroke, and other neurological disorders classically categorized as permanent. This paper examined the most recent advances in the biology of neurological injury, molecular mechanisms of neural repair, physiology of neurological recovery, neurophysiology underlying brain-machine and neural interface training, state of the art in neural and brain-machine interfaces, neurorehabilitation strategies, and ideas for how to integrate future research. 

 

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): Hope for stubborn depression

TMS is being studied extensively across disorders and even disciplines with the hope that it will evolve into new treatments for neurological disorders, pain management, and physical rehabilitation in addition to psychiatry. There are currently large clinical trials looking at the effectiveness of TMS in conditions such as pediatric depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, smoking cessation, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

 

Neurodegenerative Diseases: Exercising Toward Neurogenesis and Neuroregeneration

This paper discusses evidence to suggest that sustained exercise and diet restriction may be ways to slow the rate of neurodegeneration, by perhaps promoting neurogenesis or antioxidant-related pathways. It is also our intention to cover NDD in a broad sense, in the context of basic and clinical sciences to cater for both clinician’s and the scientist’s needs, and to highlight current research investigating exercise as a therapeutic or preventive measure.

 

Role of physical exercise for improving posttraumatic nerve regeneration.

Over the past years, important neurobiological determinants of peripheral nervous system (PNS) regeneration and successful end-organ reinnervation were unveiled. Such knowledge provides cues for designing novel strategies for treating and rehabilitating traumatic PNS damage. Physical exercise, by means of treadmill or wheel running, is neuroprotective and neuroregenerative. Research conducted on rodents demonstrates that endurance exercise modulates several of the cellular and molecular responses to peripheral nerve injury and by doing so it stimulates nerve regeneration and functional recovery following experimental PNS injury. Treadmill running increases the number of regenerating neurons, the rate of axonal growth, and the extent of muscle reinnervation following peripheral nerve injury. Furthermore, treadmill running has the ability to increase the release of neurotrophins and growth factors in the spinal cord, the injured nerve, and reinnervating muscles.

 

What Is Neurofeedback? When it’s used, what to expect, how it works. 

Nutraceuticals in Prophylaxis and Therapy of Neurodegenerative Diseases

A critical link between the lifestyle and food habits and neurodegeneration has been established, and the role of nutraceuticals for disease prophylaxis and therapy is proposed. Nutraceuticals are perceived as better alternatives to drugs for the treatment of neurodegeration owing to their proven safety profiles and acceptability to the community. Several important phytochemicals have been identified with potential as neuroprotective agents. Apart from many herbs used in traditional medicines, a few natural phenols, antioxidants, and vitamins in our daily diet have been illustrated as curative agents.